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A file format specification can include a grammar definition, used for syntax highlighting, and to help define which differences are important.

For example, our standard file format for C/C++ source code includes a grammar that recognizes keywords, comments, and literal strings.  By flagging differences in comments as unimportant, you can better concentrate on important differences.

A grammar definition in Beyond Compare is fairly simplistic.  It does not support nested or context-specific definitions, so it doesn't handle tagged languages like HTML and PHP very well.  On the other hand, it is a big step up from Beyond Compare 2's functionality.

To edit a grammar, pick Tools > File Formats and find the appropriate file format.  Switch to the Grammar tab and edit the grammar items.